Effective communication sounds like it should be instinctive. However, all too often, when we try to communicate with others something goes astray. We say one thing, the other person hears something else, and misunderstandings, frustration, and conflicts ensue. This can cause problems in your home, school, and work relationships. For many of us, communicating more clearly and effectively requires learning some essential skills. Whether you’re trying to improve communication with your spouse, kids, boss, or coworkers, learning these skills can deepen your connections to others, build greater trust and respect, and improve teamwork, problem-solving, and your overall social and emotional health.
What is effective communication?
Effective communication is about more than just exchanging information. It's about understanding the emotion and intentions behind the data. As well as being able to convey a message clearly, you need to also listen in a way that gains the full meaning of what’s being said and makes the other person feel heard and understood.
More than just the words you use, effective communication combines a set of 4 skills:
- Engaged listening
- Nonverbal communication
- Managing stress at the moment
- Asserting yourself in a respectful way
While these are learned skills, communication is more effective when it becomes spontaneous rather than formulaic. A speech that is read, for example, rarely has the same impact as a speech that’s delivered (or appears to be provided) spontaneously. Of course, it takes time and effort to develop these skills. The more effort and practice you put in, the more intuitive and effective your communication skills will become.
What’s stopping you from communicating effectively?
Common barriers to effective communication include:
Stress and out-of-control emotion. When you’re stressed or emotionally overwhelmed, you’re more likely to misread other people, send confusing or off-putting nonverbal signals, and lapse into unhealthy knee-jerk patterns of behaviour. To avoid conflict and misunderstandings, you can learn how to calm down before continuing a conversation quickly.
Lack of focus. You can’t communicate effectively when you’re multitasking. If you’re checking your phone, planning what you’re going to say next, or daydreaming you’re almost sure to miss nonverbal cues in the conversation. To communicate effectively, you need to avoid distractions and stay focused.
Inconsistent body language. Nonverbal communication should reinforce what is being said, not contradict it. If you say one thing, but your body language says something else, your listener will likely feel you're dishonest. For example, you can’t say “yes” while shaking your head no.
Negative body language. If you disagree with or dislike what’s being said, you may use negative body language to rebuff the other person’s message, such as crossing your arms, avoiding eye contact, or tapping your feet. You don’t have to agree, or even like what’s being said, but to communicate effectively and not make the other person defensive, it’s important to avoid sending negative signals.
Effective communication skill 1: Become an engaged listener
When communicating with others, we often focus on what we should say. However, effective communication is less about talking and more about listening. Listening well means not just understanding the words or the information being communicated, but also understanding the emotions the speaker is trying to convey.
There’s a big difference between engaged listening and merely hearing. When you listen—when you’re engaged with what’s being said—you’ll listen to the subtle intonations in someone’s voice that tell you how that person is feeling and the emotions they’re trying to communicate. When you’re an engaged listener, not only will you better understand the other person, you’ll also make that person feel heard and understood, which can help build a stronger, more profound connection between you.
By communicating in this way, you’ll also experience a process that lowers stress and supports physical and emotional well-being. If the person you’re talking to is calm, for example, listening engagingly will help to calm you, too. Similarly, if the person is agitated, you can help ease them by listening attentively and making the person feel understood.
If your goal is to understand and connect with the other person entirely, listening engagingly will often come naturally. If it doesn’t, try the following tips. The more you practice them, the more satisfying and rewarding your interactions with others will become.
Tips for becoming an engaged listener
- Focus entirely on the speaker. You can’t listen engagingly if you’re regularly checking your phone or thinking about something else. You need to stay focused on the moment-to-moment experience to pick up the subtle nuances and critical nonverbal cues in a conversation. If you find it hard to concentrate on some speakers, try repeating their words over in your head—it’ll reinforce their message and help you stay focused.
- Favour your right ear. As strange as it sounds, the left side of the brain contains the primary processing centres for both speech comprehension and emotions. Since the left side of the brain is connected to the right side of the body, favouring your right ear can help you better detect the emotional nuances of what someone is saying.
- Avoid interrupting or trying to redirect the conversation to your concerns by saying something like, “If you think that’s bad, let me tell you what happened to me.” Listening is not the same as waiting for your turn to talk. You can’t concentrate on what someone’s saying if you’re forming what you’re going to say next. Often, the speaker can read your facial expressions and know that your mind’s elsewhere.
- Show your interest in what's being said. Nod occasionally, smile at the person and make sure your posture is open and inviting. Encourage the speaker to continue with small verbal comments like “yes” or “uh huh.”
- Try to set aside the judgment. To communicate effectively with someone, you don’t have to like them or agree with their ideas, values, or opinions. However, you do need to set aside your judgment and withhold blame and criticism to understand them fully. The most difficult communication, when successfully executed, can often lead to an unlikely connection with someone.
- Provide feedback. If there seems to be a disconnect, reflect what has been said by paraphrasing. "What I'm hearing is…," or "Sounds like you are saying…," are great ways to reflect. Don’t simply repeat what the speaker has said verbatim, though—you’ll sound insincere or unintelligent. Instead, express what the speaker’s words mean to you. Ask questions to clarify certain points: "What do you mean when you say..." or "Is this what you mean?"
Hear the emotion behind the words
It’s the higher frequencies of human speech that impart emotion. You can become more attuned to these frequencies—and thus better able to understand what others are saying—by exercising the tiny muscles of your middle ear (the smallest in the body). You can do this by singing, playing a wind instrument, or listening to certain types of high-frequency music (a Mozart symphony or violin concerto, for example, rather than low-frequency rock, pop, or hip-hop).
Effective communication Skill 2: Pay attention to nonverbal signals
The way you look, listen, move, and react to another person tells them more about how you feel than words alone ever can. Nonverbal communication, or body language, includes facial expressions, body movement and gestures, eye contact, posture, the tone of your voice, and even your muscle tension and breathing.
Developing the ability to understand and use nonverbal communication can help you connect with others, express what you mean, navigate challenging situations, and build better relationships at home and work.
- You can enhance effective communication by using open body language—arms uncrossed, standing with an open stance or sitting on the edge of your seat, and maintaining eye contact with the person you’re talking to.
- You can also use body language to emphasise or enhance your verbal message—patting a friend on the back while complimenting him on his success, for example, or pounding your fists to underline your message.
Improve how you read nonverbal communication
- Be aware of individual differences. People from different countries and cultures tend to use different nonverbal communication gestures, so it’s important to take age, culture, religion, gender, and emotional state into account when reading body language signals. An American teen, a grieving widow, and an Asian businessman, for example, are likely to use nonverbal cues differently.
- Look at nonverbal communication signals as a group. Don’t read too much into a single gesture or nonverbal cue. Consider all of the nonverbal messages you receive, from eye contact to tone of voice to body language. Anyone can slip up occasionally and let eye contact slip, for example, or briefly cross their arms without meaning to. Consider the signals as a whole to get a better “read” on a person.
Improve how you deliver nonverbal communication
- Use nonverbal signals that match up with your words rather than contradict them. If you say one thing, but your body language says something else, your listener will feel confused or suspect that you're dishonest. For example, sitting with your arms crossed and shaking your head doesn’t match words telling the other person that you agree with what they’re saying.
- Adjust your nonverbal signals according to the context. The tone of your voice, for example, should be different when you’re addressing a child than when you’re discussing a group of adults. Similarly, take into account the emotional state and cultural background of the person you’re interacting with.
- Avoid negative body language. Instead, use body language to convey positive feelings even when you're not experiencing them. If you’re nervous about a situation—a job interview, outstanding presentation, or first date, for example—you can use positive body language to signal confidence, even though you’re not feeling it. Instead of tentatively entering a room with your head down, eyes averted and sliding into a chair, try standing tall with your shoulders back, smiling and maintaining eye contact, and delivering a firm handshake. It will make you feel more self-confident and help to put the other person at ease.
Effective communication Skill 3: Keep stress in check
How many times have you felt stressed during a disagreement with your spouse, kids, boss, friends, or coworkers and then said or done something you later regretted? If you can quickly relieve stress and return to a calm state, you’ll not only avoid such regrets but in many cases, you’ll also help to calm the other person as well. It’s only when you’re in a calm, relaxed state that you'll be able to know whether the situation requires a response, or whether the other person’s signals indicate it would be better to remain silent.
In situations such as a job interview, business presentation, high-pressure meeting, or introduction to a loved one’s family, for example, it’s essential to manage your emotions, think on your feet, and effectively communicate under pressure.
Communicate effectively by staying calm under pressure:
- Use stalling tactics to give yourself time to think. Ask a question to be repeated or for clarification of a statement before you respond.
- Pause to collect your thoughts. Silence isn’t necessarily a bad thing—pausing can make you seem more in control than rushing your response.
- Make one point and provide an example or supporting piece of information.If your response is too long or you waffle about some points, you risk losing the listener’s interest. Follow one end with an example and then gauge the listener’s reaction to tell if you should make a second point.
- Deliver your words. In many cases, how you say something can be as important as what you mean. Speak clearly, maintain an even tone, and make eye contact. Keep your body language relaxed and open.
- Wrap up with a summary and then stop. Summarize your response and then stop talking, even if it leaves silence in the room. You don’t have to fill the silence by continuing to talk.
Quick stress relief for effective communication
When things start to get heated in a conversation, you need something quick and immediate to bring down the emotional intensity. By learning to reduce stress at the moment quickly, you can safely face any strong emotions you’re experiencing, regulate your feelings, and behave appropriately.
- Recognise when you're becoming stressed. Your body will let you know if you’re stressed as you communicate. Are your muscles or your stomach tight? Are your hands clenched? Is your breath shallow? Are you "forgetting" to breathe?
- Take a moment to calm down before deciding to continue a conversation or postpone it.
- Bring your senses to the rescue. The best way to rapidly and reliably relieve stress is through the senses—sight, sound, touch, taste, smell—or movement. For example, you could pop a peppermint in your mouth, squeeze a stress ball in your pocket, take a few deep breaths, clench and relax your muscles, or recall a soothing, sensory-rich image. Each person responds differently to sensory input, so you need to find things that are soothing to you.
- Look for humour in the situation. When used appropriately, fun is a great way to relieve stress when communicating. When you or those around you start taking things too seriously, find a way to lighten the mood by sharing a joke or amusing story.
- Be willing to compromise. Sometimes, if you can both bend a little, you’ll be able to find a happy middle ground that reduces the stress levels for everyone concerned. If you realise that the other person cares much more about something that you do, compromise may be more comfortable for you and a good investment in the future of the relationship.
- Agree to disagree, if necessary, and take time away from the situation so everyone can calm down. Go for a stroll outside if possible, or spend a few minutes meditating. Physical movement or finding a quiet place to regain your balance can quickly reduce stress.
Effective communication Skill 4: Assert yourself
Direct, assertive expression makes for clear communication and can help boost your self-esteem and decision-making. Being precise means expressing your thoughts, feelings, and needs openly and honestly, while standing up for yourself and respecting others. It does NOT mean being hostile, aggressive, or demanding. Effective communication is always about understanding the other person, not about winning an argument or forcing your opinions on others.
To improve your assertiveness:
- Value yourself and your options. They are as important as anyone else's.
- Know your needs and wants. Learn to express them without infringing on the rights of others
- Express negative thoughts in a positive way. It's OK to be angry, but you must be respectful as well.
- Receive feedback positively. Accept compliments graciously, learn from your mistakes, ask for help when needed.
- Learn to say "no." Know your limits and don't let others take advantage of you. Look for alternatives, so everyone feels right about the outcome.
Developing assertive communication techniques
- Empathetic assertion conveys sensitivity to the other person. First, recognise the other person's situation or feelings, then state your needs or opinion. "I know you've been very busy at work, but I want you to make time for us as well."
- Escalating assertion can be used when your first attempts are not successful.You become increasingly firm as time progresses, which may include outlining consequences if your needs are not met. For example, "If you don't abide by the contract, I'll be forced to pursue legal action."
- Practice assertiveness in lower risk situations to start with to help build up your confidence. Alternatively, ask friends or family if you can practice assertiveness techniques on them first.
Take action, connect and speak up!
Resources & references
Effective Communication: Improving Your Social Skills – Learn how to communicate more effectively, improve your conversation skills, and be more assertive. (AnxietyBC)
Core Listening Skills – Find tips on how to be a better listener and identify and improve the things that are getting in your way. (SucceedSocially.com)
Effective Communication (PDF) – How to effectively communicate in groups using nonverbal communication and active listening techniques. (University of Maine)
Some Common Communication Mistakes – Overview of common mistakes that get in the way of effective communication and how you can avoid them. (SucceedSocially.com)
Active Listening: Hear What People are Really Saying – Understanding active listening, particularly as it applies to the workplace, and the steps you can take to become an active listener. (MindTools.com)
Effective communication: books
Porges, Stephen W. (2011). The Polyvagal Theory: Neurophysiological Foundations of Emotions, Attachment, Communication, and Self-regulation. New York: W. W. Norton & Company.
Sollier, Pierre (2005). Listening for Wellness: An Introduction to the Tomatis Method. The Mozart Center Press.
Authors: Lawrence Robinson, Jeanne Segal, Ph. D., and Melinda Smith, M.A. Last updated: January 2018.